爬取行政区划代码
  mncAOxwYOY21 2024年02月27日 10 0

爬取国家统计局统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码 2023 版

python 实现

一、打开国家统计局官网

https://www.stats.gov.cn/sj/tjbz/qhdm/
image

二、分析每一级URL找到规律

省级:https://www.stats.gov.cn/sj/tjbz/tjyqhdmhcxhfdm/2023/index.html
地市级:https://www.stats.gov.cn/sj/tjbz/tjyqhdmhcxhfdm/2023/61.html 61为陕西编码
区县级:https://www.stats.gov.cn/sj/tjbz/tjyqhdmhcxhfdm/2023/61/6101.html
image

找到规律 当前路径+href 路径即可跳入下一级

打码

import json
import time

import requests
from bs4 import BeautifulSoup

main_url = "https://www.stats.gov.cn/sj/tjbz/tjyqhdmhcxhfdm/2023"


class area_code:
    name = ""
    code = ""
    url = ""
    child = []
    urban_rural_type = 0
    lng = 0
    lat = 0

    def __init__(self, name, code, url, child, urban_rural_type=0):
        self.name = name
        self.code = code
        self.url = url
        self.child = child
        self.urban_rural_type = urban_rural_type
        self.lng = 0
        self.lat = 0


# 爬取全国统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码
# pip install beautifulsoup4
def get_code(suffix_url="index.html"):
    _province_url = "{}/{}".format(main_url, suffix_url)
    response = requests.get(_province_url)
    response.encoding = "utf-8"
    _html = response.text
    _soup = BeautifulSoup(_html, "html.parser")
    _province_code = {}
    for a in _soup.find_all("a"):
        if a.get("href") and a.get("href").endswith(".html"):
            _province_code[a.text] = a.get("href")
    return _province_code


def get_child_code(_url, _parent_url=None, _retry=3):
    """
    输出 [{name:"呼和浩特市", code:"150100000000", url:"15/1501.html"},{name:"包头市", code:"150200000000", url:"15/1502.html"}]
    :param _parent_url: 父级url
    :param _retry: 重试次数
    :param _url: 当前url
    :return:
    """
    _city_code = []
    if _parent_url is not None and len(_parent_url) > 0:
        # 截取最后一个"/"之前的字符串
        _parent_path = _parent_url.rsplit("/", 1)[0]
        _req_url = "{}/{}".format(_parent_path, _url)
    else:
        _req_url = "{}/{}".format(main_url, _url)
    try:
        response = requests.get(_req_url)
    except Exception as e:
        if _retry > 0:
            time.sleep(1)
            print("请求出错:{},第{}次重试".format(e, 4 - _retry))
            return get_child_code(_url, _parent_url, _retry - 1)
        else:
            raise e
    response.encoding = "utf-8"
    _html = response.text
    _soup = BeautifulSoup(_html, "html.parser")

    # class_="citytr" or class_="towntr" or class_="countytr" or class_="villagetr"
    for tr in _soup.find_all("tr", class_=["citytr", "towntr", "countytr"]):
        _tds = tr.find_all("td")
        print("开始处理 - {}".format(_tds[1].text))
        _child_url = ""
        if _tds[0].find("a") is not None and _tds[0].find("a").get("href") is not None:
            _child_url = _tds[0].find("a").get("href")
            if _child_url.endswith(".html"):
                _child = get_child_code(_child_url, _req_url)
                _city_code.append(area_code(_tds[1].text, _tds[0].text, _child_url, _child))
        else:
            _city_code.append(area_code(_tds[1].text, _tds[0].text, _child_url, []))
    for tr in _soup.find_all("tr", class_=["villagetr"]):
        _tds = tr.find_all("td")
        code = _tds[0].text
        urban_rural_type = _tds[1].text
        name = _tds[2].text
        _city_code.append(area_code(name, code, "", [], urban_rural_type))
    return _city_code


def get_province_list():
    """
    # 获取省份、直辖市、自治区代码
    :return:
    """
    province_map = get_code()
    _province_list = []
    for _name, _url in province_map.items():
        _province_list.append(area_code(_name, _url.split(".")[0], _url, []))
    return _province_list


if __name__ == '__main__':
    province_list = get_province_list()
    # 获取市级代码
    for province in province_list:
        print("开始处理 - {}".format(province.name))
        city_code = get_child_code(province.url)
        province.child = city_code
    # 输出到文件json
    with open("area_code.json", "w", encoding="utf-8") as f:
        f.write(json.dumps(province_list, default=lambda obj: obj.__dict__, ensure_ascii=False))

缺陷

  1. json格式太大了,建议直接入库或者生成cvs
    image
  2. 不支持退出续爬,后续完善....
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